Researching + Designing

Introduction This section contains recommendations for materials that will help in understanding  aspects of research where designing, making or prototyping are means for gaining understanding or collecting data.

Broadly, this mode of working is referred to by diverse terms including: practice-based research; practice-led research; investigative design[ing]; explorative design[ing]; research by practice; research through design; research by design; and practice-as-research though this latter term is less common in design areas.


Durling, David, Ken Friedman and Paul Gutherson. (2003)  Editorial – Debating the Practice-based PhD.  In: International Journal of Design Sciences and Technology, 10(2), 7-18.  Europia: France.
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Langrish, J. 2000. Not everything made of steel is a battleship . In Durling, David and Ken Friedman, Editors. Proceedings of conference Doctoral Education in Design: Foundations for the Future, 8-12 July 2000, La Clusaz, France.  UK: Staffordshire University Press
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Rust, Chris, Judith Mottram and Jeremy Till. 2007. Practice-Led Research in Art, Design and Architecture. AHRC Research Review.
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Durling, D. and K. Niedderer. 2007. The benefits and limits of Investigative Designing. IASDR International Conference, Hong Kong. This deals specifically with the requirements of PhD studies.
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Niedderer, K. and S. Roworth-Stokes. 2007. The role and Use of Creative Practice in Research and its Contribution to Knowledge. IASDR International Conference, Hong Kong.
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Candy, Linda. 2006. Practice-Based Research: A Guide. CCS Report: 2006-V1.0 November.
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Durling, David and Ken Friedman , Editors.  (2003)  Special edition of the ADCHE Journal, on best practice in the PhD in Design.  Vol. 1(3). Brighton: ADC-LTSN.
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Finlay, Linda. 2008. Reflecting on ‘Reflective Practice’. PBPL Paper 52. Open University
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Laurel, Brenda. 2003. Design research: methods and perspectives. MIT.
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Niedderer, K. (2013. Explorative Materiality and Knowledge: The Role of Creative Exploration and Artefacts in Design Research. Formakademisk, 6 (2), pp. 1-20.
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Schön, D. 1998. The Reflective Practitioner: How professionals think in action. Aldershot: Ashgate
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Wikipedia: Reflective practice
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